Parallel Testing in Cucumber with TestNG

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In this tutorial, I will explain Parallel Testing using Cucumber with TestNG.

Cucumber-JVM allows parallel execution across multiple threads since version 4.0.0. There are several options to incorporate this built-in feature in a Cucumber project. You can do so by using JUnit, TestNG or CLI.

Cucumber can be executed in parallel using TestNG and Maven test execution plugins by setting the dataprovider parallel option to true.

In TestNG the scenarios and rows in a scenario outline are executed in multiple threads. One can use either Maven Surefire or Failsafe plugin for executing the runners. In this tutorial, I’m using the Maven Surefire plugin.

Pre-Requisite

  1. Java is installed
  2. Maven is installed
  3. TestNG is installed

This framework consists of:

  1. Selenium – 3.141.59
  2. Java 11
  3. Cucumber Java – 6.8.1
  4. Cucumber TestNG- 6.8.1
  5. Maven – 3.8.1
  6. TestNG – 7.4.0
  7. Maven Surefire Plugin – 3.0.0-M5

Steps to create a project for parallel Testing in Cucumber

  1. Create a Maven project.
  2. Update Properties section in Maven pom.xml
  3. Add Cucumber and TestNG dependencies to the project.
  4. Add Surefire plugin configuration to the build section to the POM.
  5. Create 2 feature files under src/test/resources – Login.feature and HomePage.feature.
  6. Create the Step Definition classes for both feature files or Glue Code.
  7. Create a Cucumber TestNG Runner class.
  8. Report Generation
  9. Execute the test from Command Line.
  10. Execute the test from TestNG Runner.
  11. Difference between parallel and non parallel tests

Detailed Step Description

Step 1 – Create a Maven project

Create a Maven project in your favorite IDE using the cucumber-archetype. To know more about this, click here.

Step 2 – Update Properties section in Maven pom.xml

<properties>
   <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
   <selenium.version>3.141.59</selenium.version> 
   <cucumber.version>6.8.1</cucumber.version>
   <testng.version>7.4.0</testng.version>
   <maven.surefire.plugin.version>3.0.0-M5</maven.surefire.plugin.version>
 </properties>

Step 3 – Add Cucumber, Selenium and TestNG dependencies to the project

Add below mentioned Cucumber-Java and Cucumber-TestNG and Selenium-java dependencies to the project.

<dependencies>

    <!--Cucumber Dependencies -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.cucumber</groupId>
      <artifactId>cucumber-java</artifactId>
      <version>${cucumber.version}</version>
    </dependency>
  
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.cucumber</groupId>
      <artifactId>cucumber-testng</artifactId>
      <version>${cucumber.version}</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
     </dependency>
  
    <!-- Selenium Dependency -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.seleniumhq.selenium</groupId>
      <artifactId>selenium-java</artifactId>
      <version>${selenium.version}</version>
    </dependency>

    <!-- TestNG Dependency -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.testng</groupId>
      <artifactId>testng</artifactId>
      <version>${testng.version}</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>  

</dependencies>
  

Step 4 – Add Surefire plugin configuration to the build section to the POM

<plugin>
    <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
    <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
    <version>${maven.surefire.plugin.version}</version>
</plugin>

Step 5 – Create 2 feature files under src/test/resources – Login.feature and HomePage.feature

Below are the sample feature files.

Login.feature

Feature: Login to HRM Application 
 
   @ValidCredentials
   Scenario: Login with valid credentials - Feature 1, Scenario -1
     
    Given User is on Home page
    When User enters username as "Admin"
    And User enters password as "admin123"
    Then User should be able to login sucessfully

HomePage.feature

Feature: Home page validation
 
Background:
   Given User Navigates to HRM login page
   And User login with valid credentials

   @ValidQuickLaunch
   Scenario Outline: Login with valid credentials to check QuickLanuch options  - Feature 2, Scenario -1
    
   When User is in Dashboard page
	 Then there are valid QuickLaunch options '<options>'
	  	
	Examples: 
		|options                  |
		|Assign Leave             |
		|Leave List               |

	
	@ValidLegendOptions		
	Scenario Outline: Login with valid credentials to check Manu Options - Feature 2, Scenario -2
    
   When User is in Dashboard page
	 Then there are valid Legend options '<legendOptions>'
	  	
	Examples: 
		|legendOptions               |
		|Administration              |

Step 6 – Create the Step Definition classes for both feature files or Glue Code.

Below is the Step Definition for Login.feature.

public class LoginDefinition {

	WebDriver driver;

	@Given("User is on Home page")
	public void userOnHomePage() {

		System.out.println("Thread ID - " + Thread.currentThread().getId());
		System.setProperty("webdriver.gecko.driver",
				"C:\\Users\\Vibha\\Software\\geckodriver-v0.26.0-win64\\geckodriver.exe");

		driver = new FirefoxDriver();

		driver.manage().window().maximize();
		driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

		driver.get("https://opensource-demo.orangehrmlive.com/");
	}

	@When("User enters username as {string}")
	public void entersUsername(String userName) throws InterruptedException {

		System.out.println("Username Entered");
		driver.findElement(By.name("txtUsername")).sendKeys(userName);

	}

	@When("User enters password as {string}")
	public void entersPassword(String passWord) throws InterruptedException {

		System.out.println("Password Entered");
		driver.findElement(By.name("txtPassword")).sendKeys(passWord);

		driver.findElement(By.id("btnLogin")).submit();
	}

	@Then("User should be able to login sucessfully")
	public void sucessfullLogin() throws InterruptedException {

		String newPageText = driver.findElement(By.id("welcome")).getText();
		System.out.println("newPageText :" + newPageText);
		assertThat(newPageText, containsString("Welcome"));

		driver.quit();

	}

Below is the Step Definition for HomePage.feature.

public class HomePageDefinitions {

	WebDriver driver;

	@Given("User Navigates to HRM login page")
	public void userOnHomePage() {

		System.out.println("Thread ID - " + Thread.currentThread().getId());
		System.setProperty("webdriver.gecko.driver",
				"C:\\Users\\Vibha\\Software\\geckodriver-v0.26.0-win64\\geckodriver.exe");

		driver = new FirefoxDriver();
		driver.manage().window().maximize();
		driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
		driver.get("https://opensource-demo.orangehrmlive.com/");
	}

	@And("User login with valid credentials")
	public void entersCredentials() throws InterruptedException {
		Thread.sleep(1000);

		driver.findElement(By.name("txtUsername")).sendKeys("Admin");
		driver.findElement(By.name("txtPassword")).sendKeys("admin123");
		driver.findElement(By.id("btnLogin")).submit();

	}

	@When("User is in Dashboard page")
	public void verifyDashboardPage() {

		String dashboardTitle = driver.findElement(By.id("welcome")).getText();
		assertThat(dashboardTitle, containsString("Welcome"));

	}

	@Then("there are valid QuickLaunch options {string}")
	public void verifyQuickLinks(String options) throws InterruptedException {

		switch (options) {
		case "Assign Leave":
			String linkOne = driver
					.findElement(By.xpath(
							"//*[@id='dashboard-quick-launch-panel-menu_holder']/table/tbody/tr/td[1]/div/a/span"))
					.getText();
			Assert.assertEquals(linkOne, options);
			Thread.sleep(1000);
			break;
		case "Leave List ":
			String linkTwo = driver
					.findElement(By.xpath(
							"//*[@id='dashboard-quick-launch-panel-menu_holder']/table/tbody/tr/td[2]/div/a/span"))
					.getText();
			Assert.assertEquals(linkTwo, options);
			Thread.sleep(1000);
			break;
		case "Timesheets":
			String linkThree = driver
					.findElement(By.xpath(
							"//*[@id='dashboard-quick-launch-panel-menu_holder']/table/tbody/tr/td[3]/div/a/span"))
					.getText();
			Assert.assertEquals(linkThree, options);
			Thread.sleep(1000);
			break;
		default:
			break;
		}

		driver.quit();

	}

	@Then("there are valid Legend options {string}")
	public void verifyMenuOptions(String options) throws InterruptedException {

		switch (options) {
		case "Not assigned to Subunits":
			String linkOne = driver
					.findElement(
							By.xpath("//*[@id='div_legend_pim_employee_distribution_legend']/table/tbody/tr[1]/td[2]"))
					.getText();
			Assert.assertEquals(linkOne, options);
			Thread.sleep(1000);
			break;
		case "Administration":
			String linkTwo = driver
					.findElement(
							By.xpath("//*[@id='div_legend_pim_employee_distribution_legend']/table/tbody/tr[2]/td[2]"))
					.getText();
			Assert.assertEquals(linkTwo, options);
			Thread.sleep(1000);
			break;
		case "Client Services":
			String linkThree = driver
					.findElement(
							By.xpath("//*[@id='div_legend_pim_employee_distribution_legend']/table/tbody/tr[3]/td[2]"))
					.getText();
			Assert.assertEquals(linkThree, options);
			Thread.sleep(1000);
			break;
		default:
			break;

		}
		driver.quit();
	}
}

Step 7 – Create a Cucumber TestNG Runner class

Add a cucumber runner by extending the AbstractTestNGCucumberTests class and overriding the scenarios method. Set the parallel option value to true for the DataProvider annotation.

import org.testng.annotations.DataProvider;

import io.cucumber.testng.AbstractTestNGCucumberTests;
import io.cucumber.testng.CucumberOptions;

@CucumberOptions(tags = "", features = "src/test/resources/features", glue = "com.example.Cucumber_TestNGDemo.definitions")

public class CucumberRunnerTests extends AbstractTestNGCucumberTests {

	@Override
	@DataProvider(parallel = true)
	public Object[][] scenarios() {
		return super.scenarios();
	}

}

Step 8 – Report Generation

Add cucumber.properties under src/test/resources and add the below instruction in the file.

cucumber.publish.enabled=true

Step 9 – Execute the test from Command Line

Use the below mentioned command in command prompt to run the tests.

mvn test

Step 10 – Execute the tests from TestNG Runner

Go to Runner class and right click Run As TestNG Test. The tests will run as TestNG tests.

Step 11 – Difference between parallel and non parallel tests

Parallel Tests – All the tests are started at the same time, so they share different threads. The way tests are executed are different in them. With non-paralle tests, all the scenarios of the same feature are executed together and then he scenarios of another feature file. Whereas, in parallel test, all the tests are started at the same time, so there won’t be any specific order.

All the scenarios and rows of the scenario outlines are executed in different threads.

Non Parallel Tests

Parallel Test Report – The execution time to complete the tests are less in parallel test execution as compared to the non parallel one.

Non Parallel Tests Report

Congratulations on making it through this tutorial and hope you found it useful! Happy Learning!! Cheers!!

There is another tutorial which shows Parallel Testing in Cucumber with JUnit.

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