Explicit Wait in Serenity

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In the previous tutorial, I have explained the Implicit Wait in Serenity. In this tutorial, will explain the Explicit Wait in Serenity.

What is Explicit Wait?

Explicit wait is used to wait for a specific web element on the web page for the specified amount of time. You can configure wait time element by element basis.

By deafult explicit wait is for 5 sec with an interval of 10 ms.

Below is the example where I have created two classes – ExplicitWaitDemo and SynchronizationTests.

ExplicitWaitDemo

@DefaultUrl("http://the-internet.herokuapp.com/dynamic_loading/1")
public class ExplicitWaitDemo extends PageObject {

    //Incorrect XPath
	@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id='start']/buttons")
	WebElementFacade startButton;

	@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id='finish']/h4")
	WebElementFacade pageText;

	public void explicitWaitDemo1() throws InterruptedException {

		open();

		startButton.waitUntilClickable().click();

	}
}

SynchronizationTests

@RunWith(SerenityRunner.class)
public class SynchronizationTests {

	ExplicitWaitDemo ewaitDemo;

	@Managed
	WebDriver driver;

	@Test
	public void waitTest1() throws InterruptedException {

		ewaitDemo.explicitWaitDemo1();

	}

}

You can see that Serenity waited for 5 sec with an interval of 100 ms.

When we need to wait for a web element for specific amount of time , then below mentioned command can be added to serenity.conf.

webdriver {
      wait {
         for {
            timeout = 6000
          
        }  
   } 
}

The same can be added to serenity.properties as shown below.

webdriver.wait.for.timeout = 6000

Now, let us run the same above test. I have used incorrect Xpath for button. So the test should fail after trying to locate the button for 6 secs.

You can print the explicit wait time by using the method – getWaitForTimeout().

In the below example, I have used the explicit wait as 6 sec and which is also returned by menthod – getWaitForTimeout().

@DefaultUrl("http://the-internet.herokuapp.com/dynamic_loading/2")
public class ExplicitWaitDemo extends PageObject {

	@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id='start']/button")
	WebElementFacade startButton;

	@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id='finish']/h4")
	WebElementFacade pageText;

	public void explicitWaitDemo1() throws InterruptedException {

		open();

		startButton.click();

		System.out.println("Explicit Time defined for the test (in seconds):" + getWaitForTimeout().toSeconds());

	}
}

You can override the value of explicit wait mentioned in the serenity.properties or serenity.conf files. This can be done by using method – withTimeoutOf(Duration duration).

@DefaultUrl("http://the-internet.herokuapp.com/dynamic_loading/1")
public class ExplicitWaitDemo extends PageObject {

    //Incorrect XPath
	@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id='start']/buttons")
	WebElementFacade startButton;

	@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id='finish']/h4")
	WebElementFacade pageText;

	public void explicitWaitDemo1() throws InterruptedException {

		open();

       //Override the value mentioned in serenity.conf for timeout from 6 sec to 8 sec
		startButton.withTimeoutOf(Duration.ofSeconds(8)).click();

	}
}

You can also wait for more arbitrary conditions, e.g.

@DefaultUrl("http://the-internet.herokuapp.com/dynamic_loading/2")
public class ExplicitWaitDemo extends PageObject {

	@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id='start']/button")
	WebElementFacade startButton;

	@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id='finish']/h4")
	WebElementFacade pageText;

	public void explicitWaitDemo1() throws InterruptedException {

		open();
        startButton.click();
		String expected = waitFor(pageText).getText();
		System.out.println("Value of Page :" + expected);
		Assert.assertEquals("Hello World!", expected);

	}
}

You can also specify the timeout for a field. For example, if you wanted to wait for up to 8 seconds for a button to become clickable before clicking on it, you could do the following:

startButton.withTimeoutOf(Duration.ofSeconds(8)).waitUntilClickable().click();

Finally, if a specific element a PageObject needs to have a bit more time to load, you can use the timeoutInSeconds attribute in the Serenity @FindBy annotation, e.g.

import net.serenitybdd.core.annotations.findby.FindBy;
...
@FindBy(xpath = ("//*[@id='start']/button"), timeoutInSeconds="10"))
public WebElementFacade startButton;

To wait for a specific text on the web page, you can use waitForTextToAppear attribute

waitForTextToAppear("Example 1").waitFor(startButton).click();

There are many other methods that can be used with Explicit Wait.

We are done! Congratulations on making it through this tutorial and hope you found it useful! Happy Learning!!

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